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Medical is the science and art of healing. Many people are attracted towards this career because of the thrill and glamour attached to this profession. A doctor enjoys a very high position in the society and he helps to alleviate pain and suffering of the people.

Different systems of medicine are practised in India. While modern medicine is practiced by Physicians and surgeons who have completed MBBS and higher education, the Ayurvedic and Unani systems are practiced by persons having done BAMS and BUMS. Other systems being practised in India are Homoeopathy, Siddha and Naturopathy and Biochemic. Each one has its importance and offers career opportunities.

Doctors work to prevent, diagnose and treat diseases, disorders and injuries. While there is the attraction of good earnings, the years of training are long 8-10 years if you are specializing in a particular area.
Those who complete their MBBS can go for an MD or an MS. Practitioners of medicine have to concentrate for long spells and be extremely patient. They first listen patiently to the patient's problems in his/her own words, examine him/her, study the results of clinical test and then diagnose the illness/ailment/disease before prescribing the course of treatment or medicine.

Doctors usually work in health facilities like hospitals, nursing homes or community health centres. There are many private practitioners as well. Doctors also join the state or central medical services of the government. Most public and private sector organizations prefer to employ medical officers from among MBBS graduates to look after the medical needs of their employees and their families. Government Hospitals and Medical services employ large number of medical professionals. Private sector hospitals, nursing homes and colleges also offer lucrative openings.

Dental Science (BDS)

A dentist in general practice has very good financial prospects and greatest independence.

Admission to the dentistry course (BDS) is through, an entrance test conducted by the respective state Govts. or the institutions, usually along with the medical test. The BDS course is open to students who have completed the +2 or equivalent examination with Physics, Chemistry and Biology as the main subjects.

Bachelor in Dental Science (BDS) is the basic degree for aspiring Dentists. It can be followed by a master's degree in dental science (MDS).

The course duration of BDS is 4-years, after which one has to serve as resident rotary for a year, which is compulsory.

Ayurveda (BAMS)

Ayurveda means science of life. It is one of the traditional systems of medicine practiced in India. The basic graduation degree in Ayurveda is called the Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery (BAMS). Every ayurvedic practitioner has to register himself under his respective Ayurvedic and Unani practitioners Board. These are two options under this rule. Those registered under ayurveda are eligible to practice ayurvedic medicines and those registered under an integrated scheme are eligible to practice both ayurveda and modern medicines.

Homoeopathy (BHMS)

The system of medicine that is followed and the procedure of treatment here upon is wholly based on the concept that the treatment is of the whole disease and not of the symptoms. The focus of the medication is the boosting of the body's vital force and the empowerment of the resistance thereof.

Siddha (BSMS)

Siddha system is one of the oldest systems of medicine in India. The term 'siddha' means achievement and the 'siddhas' were saintly figures that achieved results in medicine through the practice of yoga.

Siddha systems literature is in Tamil and is practiced in Tamil speaking parts in India. The siddha system is largely therapeutic in nature.


The following are the programmes at bachelor's level for careers in medicine:

MBBS - Graduate degree in Allopathic Medicine
BHMS - Graduate degree in Homoeopathic Medicine
BAMS - Graduate degree in Ayurvedic Medicine
BUMS - Graduate degree in Unani Medicine

All of these are 5 ˝ years course including internship.

BVSc/AH - Graduate Degree in Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry- 5 Years

BDS- Graduate degree in dentistry
B-Pharm- Graduate degree in Pharmacy
BSc-(Nursing)-Graduate degree in Nursing

The above three are 4-years courses

BPT-Graduate degree in Physiotherapy
BOT-Graduate degree in Occupational Therapy
BMLT-Bachelor of Medical Laboratory Technology

These are approximately 3 or 3 ˝ year course plus internship

The major areas of specialisation in Allopathic Medicine are given below:

General Medicine: These practitioners usually perform the role of the family doctors. They diagnose and treat the everyday and sundry ailments. In the event of an intractable sickness, the general practitioner recommends specialist intervention.
Qualification: An MBBS degree with 3 year M.D course in General Medicine or a Postgraduate diploma course in General Medicine.

Anesthesiology: Specialists in Anesthesiology assist in the surgical process to make the surgical procedure as painless as possible.

General Surgery: This is a specialisation where the doctor is trained in surgery for all organs of the body. The surgeon can later opt to specialise in specific areas. Performance of surgery and postoperative care is the forte of the general surgeon.
Qualification: MBBS with a 3 year MS Course.

Pediatrics: This is a specialised area in medicine that focuses on diagnosis and treatments of children's diseases.
Qualification: MBBS with 3 year MD course in Pediatrics.

Cardiology: Studies the diseases related to the heart and the circulatory system.
Qualification: MBBS + 3 year course in cardio-thoracic surgery.

Obstetrics-Gynaecology: Studies the diagnosis and treatment of conditions specific to the female reproductive system.
Qualification: MBBS +MS in Obstetrics & Gynaecology.

Neurology: Treats diseases and disorders related to the brain and the nervous system.
Qualification: MBBS+MS in Neurosurgery.

Dermatology: Focuses on problems related to the skin
Qualification: MBBS+MD in Dermatology

Gastroenterology: Involves treatment of diseases related to liver, pancreas, stomach, intestine, bowels and gall bladder.

Ophthalmology: specializes in the treatment of disease pertaining to the eye.
Qualification: MBBS+MD/MS in Ophthalmology

ENT/Ear Nose Throat Specialist: Treat disorders of the Ear, Nose and Throat.
Qualification: MBBS+MS in ENT surgery.

Psychiatry: This is a branch that specialises in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders.
Qualification: MBBS+MD in Psychiatry

Pathology: This is the branch of medicine that investigates the causes of various diseases and the possibilities for their prevention.
Qualification: MBBS+MD in Pathology

Other specialisations available are Community Medicine, Physiology, Venereology, Communicable diseases, Anatomy, Plastic Surgery, Nephrology, Urology, Endocrinology, Haematology, etc.

Specialisation in various areas can be achieved by doing an MS or an MD (as indicated above) or by doing a post-graduate diploma in the relevant field.

Doctors with post graduation can venture further afield and do the PhD in any specialized area of medicine. Those who posses MD/MRCP/MS/FRCS can complete the Doctoral programme in 2 years. For those who have an M.Sc in Medicine, the PhD progromme takes 3 years.

List of National Level Medical Institutions

1) AIIMS, New Delhi
2) AFMC, Pune
3) Banaras Hindu University, Institute of Medical Sciences,Varanasi,UP.
4) CMC, Ludhiana
5) CMC, Vellore
6) JIPMER, Pondicherry
7) Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh,UP.
8) Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Wardha, Maharshtra
9) Medical College, Bhartiya Vidyapeeth (Deemed University) Dhankawi, Pune.
10) Raja Muthaiah Institute of Health Science, Annamalai University, TN.
11) KMC, Manipal.
12) St. Johns National Academy of Health Sciences, Bangalore.

All India Pre-Medical / Pre-Dental Entrance Examination

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE),New Delhi conducts this exam for admission to 15% seats for medical / dental courses in all Medical / Dental Courses run by the union of India, State Govts, except Andhra Pradesh and J&K.

Pattern of AIPMT 2004

Preliminary Examination: The preliminary exam would consist of one paper containing 200 objective type questions, (4-Options with single answer type) from Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
The duration of the paper would be 3-hours.
Marking: 3:1

Final Examination (Only for those who qualify in the Preliminary Examination)

The final exam would consist of two papers each of 2hrs duration.Paper-1 would contain questions from Physics & Chemistry and Paper 2 would contain question from Biology (Botany & Zoology).

The final exam will be having conventional (Non-Objective) questions to be answered in the Test Booklet supplied.

Age: The student should complete 17 years at the time of admission or will complete the age on or before 31st December of the year of admission.

Eligibility: The candidate must have passed the 10 + 2 course or equivalent examination with the subjects Physics, Chemistry, Biology and English individually and should have obtained a minimum of 50% marks taken together in Physics, Chemistry and Biology at the qualifying examination. For SC / ST students, this percentage is 40, instead of 50.

After declaration of results the first round of allotment is up to rank 2000 (for General). In case the seats are exhausted before all the candidates called for personal appearance are covered, the allotment will be stopped.

Declaration of Results:

The CBSE will prepare a list of successful candidates in order of merit based on the score obtained in the final examination. The merit list will be equal to the number of seats available for allotment in MBBS/BDS courses under 15% all India quota. There shall also be a waiting list - equal to the 70% of the merit list.

In case two or more candidates obtain equal marks in the final exam, the inter se merit of such candidates shall be determined in order of preference as follows.

a) Candidates obtaining higher marks in Biology (Botany & Zoology) in the exam
b) Candidates obtaining higher marks in Chemistry in the entrance exam.
c) Candidates older in age to be preferred.

All India Institute of Medical Sciences(AIIMS)

Eligibility : Class 12th pass under 10+2 system or an equivalent examination with Physics, Chemistry, Biology and English with 60% (for SC/ST-50%) aggregate in these subjects.

Age : Minimum of 17 years as on 31st December of the year of admission.

Seats : 50 (7 SC, 4 ST and 5 Seats for candidates nominated by Govt.of India).

Exam Pattern:

The examination consists of 200 multiple choice questions with 4-options distributed among Physics, Chemistry, Biology and General Knowledge. These questions include assertion - reason type (40 questions).The distribution of 200 questions is usually 60-Physics, 60-Chemistry, 60-Biology and 20 GK. But this can change from year to year. The duration of the test is 3.5 hours and the marking is 3:1.

Armed Forces Medical College, Pune (AFMC)

The AFMC, Pune was established in 1948 for post graduate courses. A graduate wing for MBBS course was started in AFMC on 4 Aug1962 with the aim of inducting medical graduates to the Armed Forces Medical Services.

The AFMC is affiliated to Maharashtra University of Health Sciences, Nasik and is recognized by the Medical Council of India.
The students admitted to AFMC for MBBS course have compulsory liability to serve as commissioned officers in the Armed Forces Medical Services. The liability of the SSC officers passing out of AFMC to serve the Armed Forces Medical Services would be seven years. The candidate and parents of the candidates are required to sign the bond agreement at the time of admission.

The applicant/student must

- be unmarried
- be of age between 17 & 22
- have passed the qualifying examination in the first attempt
- have aggregate percentage not less than 60% for Physics + Chemistry + Biology in the qualifying exam
- have minimum of 50% in each of the above subjects individually
- have not less than English-not less than 50% in English

Exam Pattern

Part I - Biology - 50 Questions
Part II - Chemistry - 50 Questions
Part III - Physics - 50 Questions
Part IV - GK, Intelligence, Logic & Reasoning-25 Questions
English Language & Comprehension-25 Questions

Duration : 2 hours
Options : 4-Options
Marking : 4:1

Other Important Points:

Rank list will be based on the test & interviews.
Two merit lists - one for boys and one for girls will be separately
Total number of Seats 130 (Boys-105, Girls-25)

Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research,Pondicherry - (JIPMER)

The institute is financed and administered by the Ministry of Health and Family welfare, Govt. of India, through the Directorate General of Health Services, New Delhi. The institute is affiliated to the Pondcherry University and provides instruction for the MBBS course.

Number of Seats: 75

a) Open General - 14
b) Open scheduled caste - 8
c) Open Scheduled Tribe - 4
d) Pondicherry General - 15
e) Pondicherry Scheduled Cast - 5
f) Seats to be filled on the basis of AIPMT-11
g) Govt. of India Nominations - 18

Admission for the seats of (a) to (e) categories is by the entrance exam conducted by this institute.

Age: Minimum of 17 years as on 31st Dec of the year of admission.

Eligibility: The candidate must have obtained not less than 50% marks in English and 50% in the subjects of Physics, Chemistry and Biology taken together. For SC/ST students, the required percentage is 40.

Exam Pattern:

The examination consists of 200 multiple choice questions - "one of best response" type - with four alternatives, distributed among English, Botany, Zoology, Physics and Chemistry.

The distribution of 200 questions is usually 60 Physics, 60 Chemistry, 60 Biology and 20 English. But this can change from year to year. The duration of test is 2 1/2 hours and there is no negative marking.

Christian Medical College,Vellore (Tamil Nadu)

Eligibility: Class 12th pass under the 10+2 system from Higher Secondary Board of Tamil Nadu or any other board recognized by the University of Chennai with English, Physics, Chemistry, Biology with 50% marks in each subjects and 50% aggregate along with English.

Age: 17 years as on 31st Dec of the year of admission.

Seats: 60 out of which 15 are available for open merit.

Test Pattern

There will be many questions printed in the test booklet. The student will have approximately 30 seconds to answer each question. The test is of 5 options with no negative marking. But a credit of 0.5 marks will be given for questions not attempted. 1 mark will be given to the correct answer

Paper I
Test 1 - Chemistry
Test 2 - Biology
Test 3 - Physics

Paper II
Test 1 - General Ability


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