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Sinusitis
 General Info about Sinusitis
 What are the causes  of Sinusitis ?
 What are the symptoms of Sinusitis ?
 How can we diagnose Sinusitis ?
 How can Sinusitis be treated ?
 Frequently asked questions about Sinusitis
 Glossary
 
General Info about Sinusitis

Sinuses are air chambers in the facial bone behind our cheeks, eyebrows and jaws. Each sinus has an opening into the nose for the free exchange of air and mucus, and each is joined with the nasal passages by a continuous sheet of thin membrane lining it and is kept moist by secretion called mucus. The sinuses function to lighten the skull and improve the quality of the voice. Sinusitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane that line the sinus cavities. Sinusitis is one of the most common medical problems affecting approximately 30% of the population at some point. Acute sinusitis commonly follows a cold and typically lasts for up to three weeks. If it continues to trouble an individual after three weeks it becomes defined as a chronic sinusitis.

What are the causes of Sinusitis ?

There are many causes for this condition :
Common cold, inflammation of the nose or sinuses, hay fever, deviated septum (when the partition between your nose is crooked), and nasal polyps( tumors) can cause swelling of the nasal and sinus passages and lead to sinusitis.

Smoking or breathing in smoke interferes with the function of sinus leading to infection.

Using decongestant nasal sprays too much, smoking, and swimming or diving can also increase our risk of getting sinusitis. Some people have growths called polyps that block their sinus passages.

Very young children may be prone to developing sinusitis because their smaller sinus passages become obstructed more easily than those of adults. Damp weather, especially in northern temperate climates, or pollutants in the air and in buildings also can trigger sinusitis. Sinusitis occurs more often in people who have reduced immune function such as AIDS.

Drinking alcohol
also causes nasal and sinus membranes to swell. If you have asthma, an allergic disease, you may have frequent episodes of chronic sinusitis.

What are the symptoms of Sinusitis ?

The location of the sinus pain depends on which sinus is affected. Morning headaches is typical of a sinus problem. There may be pain in the upper jaws and teeth, cheeks will be tender. Tenderness of nose, patient will have stuffy nose and loss of smell. Some patients experience swollen eyelids and pain between the eyes. Earaches, neck pain, and deep aching at the top of the head is also a symptom.

The Other Symptoms are
Fever
Tiredness
Weakness
Thick green or yellow nasal mucus
Sore throat and cough

How can we diagnose Sinusitis ?
Diagnosis is obtained after complete medical and physical evaluation. The diagnosis is typically made by looking inside the nose with a flexible rubber or rigid steel tube called an endoscope. X-ray of sinuses, which will show thickening of the membrane lining and clouding by accumulation of fluid in the sinuses. Advanced x-rays such as computed tomography may be required. Rhinoscopy, a procedure for directly looking in the back of the nasal passages with a small flexible fiber optic tube, may be used to directly look at the sinus openings and check for obstruction. It may sometimes be necessary to perform a needle aspiration of a sinus to confirm the diagnosis of sinusitis and to determine the bacteria causing it.
How can Sinusitis be treated ?
Your doctor can prescribe an antibiotic that fights the type of bacteria most commonly associated with sinusitis. Steroid nasal sprays to reduce inflammation in chronic sinusitis. If nasal polyps cause sinusitis their removal can help relieve sinusitis. Home remedies cannot cure sinus infection, they might give you some comfort. A saltwater, or saline nasal wash helps remove mucus and bacteria from the nose and sinuses. Gentle heat applied over the inflamed area is comforting. Steam inhalation from a vaporizer or a hot cup of water can soothe inflamed sinus cavities. Decongestants available as tablet, syrup, or nasal spray, help unblock the openings of the sinuses and temporarily reduce symptoms of nasal obstruction. Antihistamines in tablet or syrup form help reduce mucus production. They can also reduce sneezing and itching associated with allergic rhinitis (hay fever). Asprin or Ibobrufen is given to reduce pain and fever. Occasionally, stubborn sinus infections that don't respond to aggressive medical treatment require surgery to remove the diseased tissue and restore sinus drainage.
Frequently asked questions about Sinusitis
Which doctor should I consult when I have Sinusitis ?
You should consult an ENT surgeon.

What are the paranasal sinuses ?
The paranasal sinuses are air-filled cavities in the dense portions of the bones of the skull. The frontal sinuses are positioned behind the area of the forehead, while the maxillary sinuses are behind the cheeks. The sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses are found deeper in the skull behind the eyes and maxillary sinuses.

What causes chronic Sinusitis ?
If someone is allergic to airborne allergens, such as dust, mold, and pollen, which trigger allergic rhinitis, they may develop chronic sinusitis.

How can I prevent Sinusitis ?
You may get some relief from your symptoms with a humidifier, particularly if room air in your home is heated by a dry forced-air system.

Air conditioners help to provide an even temperature. Electrostatic filters attached to heating and air conditioning equipment are helpful in removing allergens from the air. you should avoid cigarette smoke and other air pollutants.
Glossary
Sinus - Air chambers in the facial bone behind our cheeks, eyebrows and jaws.
Sinusitis - Inflammation of the mucous membrane that line the sinus cavities.
Mucus - A viscid slippery secretion that is usually rich in mucins and is produced by mucous membranes which it moistens and protects.
Polyp - A projecting mass of swollen and hypertrophied or tumorous membrane.
Allergy - Altered bodily reactivity (as hypersensitivity) to an antigen in response to a first exposure.

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