India, the second largest country in the world population wise and seventh territory wise, is north of the Equator, between 8'4''to 37'6" North latitude and 68'7"to 97'25" East longitude. The country's land is flanked by the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea, along the southeast and along the southwest respectively. On the western border is situated Pakistan and in the east, Bangladesh and Burma. Along her northern boundary are Bhutan, Nepal, Tibet and Sinkiang region of China. The Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait separate India from Sri Lanka.
From North to South, India measures about 3214km and from east to west, about 2933km.The total land area is 32,68,090 sq.km. Its land frontier is 15,200km and coastline, 6103km.
The Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and Lakshadweep in the Arabian Sea are parts of the Indian Territory.
The four major geographical regions of India are:
The great Himalayan range
The Indo Gangetic Plain
The Desert regions
The Deccan Plateau and Peninsula.
The Himalayan regions are interspersed with wide plateaus and valleys like Kashmir and Kulu. Some of the world's highest peaks are in the Himalayas. This mountain region covers about one-sixth the area of India. This stretches from one end of India to the other in the northernmost part of the country and comprises almost parallel ranges between which are found large plateau and beautiful fertile valleys. They extend over a distance of around 2,400 Km.
The near-level Indo-Gangetic Plains, among the greatest stretches of the flat alluvium in the world, are formed by the basins of three rivers-the Sind, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.This extends across Northern India for about 2,400 Km with a width varying from 260 to 350 Km. It is almost the most densely populated area in the whole earth. It is a little over a quarter as large as the mountain region.
The Desert regions are: The 'Great desert' extending from the edge of Rann of Kutch beyond the Luni river northward, embracing the whole of Rajasthan-Sind frontier, and the "Little Desert" extending from the Luni river between Jaisalmer and Jodhpur up to the north. Between both the deserts is rocky waste.
The Deccan Plateau and Peninsula, extending south of the Vindhyas is geologically the oldest portion of the Indian land. The Aravalli, Vindhya, Maikala and Ajanta mountain ranges separate this Plateau from the Gangetic plain. This Plateau is flanked by the Eastern and the Western Ghats.The average height of the Eastern Ghats is around 600metres and that of the Western Ghats is around 1000 meters. Some peaks in the Western Ghats are more than 2000 meters high. The western Ghats fall abruptly in to the Arabian Sea. The narrow strip of land formed in between is highly fertile and comprises mostly the state of Kerala. . Both the Ghats meet at the southern point in the Nilgiri hills, in which is situated the Queen of hill stations called Ootacamud or more lovingly Ooty.